Italy is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. It borders France, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia with the Alps in the north. The whole of Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea with several other islands are in the south of Italy.
San Marino and the Vatican City are independent states and are enclaves within Italy, but Campione d’Italia though an Italian enclave is in Switzerland. Italy covers approximately 301.338 square kilometers and has a moderate seasonal climate. With the population of 60.8 million, it is the 5th most populous nation in Europe, and 23rd most populous in the world.